Monday, August 24, 2020

History wk 12 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

History wk 12 - Essay Example They demonstrated what different investigations have appeared, that there are spatial contrasts among people and that ladies are better in verbal abilities. What I wonder, is whether these are diverse on account of how kids are prepared. Do kid youngsters will in general be prepared to see things more spatially than young ladies are appeared? Do ladies invest more energy talking and thusly, expanding their verbal aptitudes? Is this why numerous men discover discussing issues and so on., too troublesome on the grounds that they have not been prepared in that manner? Schultz and Schultz (2008) propose that that there is predisposition separation despite everything going on when individuals meet up. In brain science, I have seen this become an issue, particularly with certain understudies who might be from the Middle East or different nations on occasion when the United States feels compromised. Despite the fact that this may not be what we need to find in brain research, I think it des pite everything exists and that we need. The possibility of sexual orientation interests me since today, there is such a great amount of going on with it. A few people are changing their sexual orientations, feeling they were naturally introduced to an inappropriate one. There is a continuous discussion about whether gays and lesbians ought to have the option to wed. Despite the fact that this may not legitimately investigate sexual orientation, it applies in that regularly gays and lesbians rise above the sex they were naturally introduced to. ... At the point when I originally came into this course, I had some thought of the different territories of brain research since I got them from various courses taken before this course. I figure my own perspective on brain science would be that it is the investigation of how individuals manage their general surroundings. I accept that it is something beyond an investigation of the psyche, on the grounds that there are such huge numbers of various parts of it. For instance, we raised the possibility of â€Å"The Secret† in this class and I accept that it is a piece of what individuals are concentrating today. The individuals who are following this are endeavoring to comprehend an alternate method of conduct that will assist them with pushing ahead. It is a conviction framework that many have embraced and made work for them. I believe that advising needs to mull over a client’s conviction framework and the way that it won't really be equivalent to that of the advocate. Trut h be told, the advisor might be against the client’s conviction framework or potentially way of life, yet they may need to have a method of managing it at any rate or to allude the customer to another person. As an advocate who is a researcher professional, I accept that it is imperative to keep on perusing in my field after I leave school and to cooperate with other researcher experts. I don't accept that we can work in a vacuum and some of the time, all things considered, a large number of us will in general get a degree and afterward work in an organization for a long time without greater turn of events. I trust it is critical to comprehend the stressors that individuals are managing on an everyday premise, and to consider those zones that we are going to work with customers in. For instance, the world is seeing significant pressure identified with PTSD originating from the war. Along these lines, a researcher specialist is going to need to get PTSD and the kinds of things that function admirably with

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Sarbanesâ€Oxley Act Free Essays

string(97) at permitting the intelligibility and correlation of the monetary data distributed by the company. 01. [pic]Sarbanesâ€Oxley Act Sen. Paul Sarbanes (Dâ€MD) and Rep. We will compose a custom paper test on Sarbanesâ€Oxley Act or on the other hand any comparative theme just for you Request Now Michael G. Oxley (Râ€OH-4), the co-backers of the Sarbanesâ€Oxley Act. The Sarbanesâ€Oxley Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-204, 116 Stat. 745, sanctioned Julyâ 30, 2002), otherwise called the ‘Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act’ (in the Senate) and ‘Corporate and Auditing Accountability and Responsibility Act’ (in the House) and normally called Sarbanesâ€Oxley, Sarbox or SOX, is a United States government law authorized on July 30, 2002, which set new or improved principles for all U. S. open organization sheets, the board and open bookkeeping firms. It is named after supporters U. S. Congressperson Paul Sarbanes (D-MD) and U. S. Agent Michael G. Oxley (R-OH). The demonstration was endorsed by the House by a vote ofâ â 423 in favor, 3 contradicted, and 8 avoiding and by the Senate with a vote ofâ â 99 in favor, 1 going without. President George W. Shrubbery marked it into law, expressing it included â€Å"the most broad changes of American strategic approaches of Franklin D. Roosevelt. † Outliness Sarbanesâ€Oxley contains 11 titles that portray explicit commands and prerequisites for money related revealing. Each title comprises of a few areas, summed up underneath. . Open Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) 2. Reviewer Independence 3. Corporate Responsibility 4. Upgraded Financial Disclosures 5. Investigator Conflicts of Interest 6. Commission Resources and Authority 7. Studies and Reports 8. Corporate and Criminal Fraud Accountability 9. White Collar Crime Penalty Enhancement 10. Corporate Tax Returns 11. C orporate Fraud Accountability Criticism Congressman Ron Paul and others, for example, previous Arkansas representative Mike Huckabee have battled that SOX was a superfluous and exorbitant government interruption into corporate administration that places U. S. orporations at a serious detriment with remote firms, driving organizations out of the United States. In an April 14, 2005 discourse before the U. S. Place of Representatives, Paul expressed, â€Å"These guidelines are harming American capital markets by giving a motivation to little US firms and remote firms to deregister from US stock trades. As indicated by an examination by an analyst at the Wharton Business School, the quantity of American organizations deregistering from open stock trades almost significantly increased during the year after Sarbanesâ€Oxley became law, while the New York Stock Exchange had just 10 new outside postings in all of 2004. The hesitance of private ventures and outside firms to enlist on American stock trade is effortlessly comprehended when one considers the expenses Sarbanesâ€Oxley forces on organizations. As per an overview by Korn/Ferry International, Sarbanesâ€Oxley cost Fortune 500 organizations a normal of $5. 1 million in consistence costs in 2004, while an examination by the law office of Foley and Lardner found the Act expanded expenses related with being an openly held organization by 130 percent. † During the money related emergency of 2007-2010, pundits accused Sarbanesâ€Oxley for the low number of Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) on American stock trades during 2008. In November 2008, Newt Gingrich and co-creator David W. Kralik approached Congress to annul Sarbanesâ€Oxley. Applause Former Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan commended the Sarbanesâ€Oxley Act: â€Å"I am shocked that the Sarbanesâ€Oxley Act, so quickly created and instituted, has worked just as it has†¦ the demonstration critically strengthened the rule that investors own our companies and that corporate supervisors ought to be taking a shot at benefit of investors to assign business assets to their ideal use. SOX has been applauded by a cross-area of money related industry specialists, refering to improved speculator certainty and progressively exact, solid fiscal reports. The CEO and CFO are presently required to unequivocally take possession for their fiscal reports under Section 302, which was not the situation before SOX. Further, inspector irreconcilable circumstances have been tended to, by disallowing evaluators from additionally having worthwhile counseling concurrences with the organizations they review under Section 201. SEC Chairman Christopher Cox expressed in 2007: â€Å"Sarbanesâ€Oxley reestablished trust in U. S. showcases by expanding responsibility, accelerating announcing, and making reviews increasingly free. One misrepresentation revealed by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in November 2009 might be legitimately credited to Sarbanes-Oxley. The extortion which traversed about 20 years and included over $24 million was submitted by Value Line (NASDAQ: VALU) against its common store investors. The misrepresentation was first answered to the SEC in 2004 by the Value Line Fund (NASDAQ: VLIFX) portfolio administrator who was solicited to sign a Code from Business Ethics as a feature of SOX. Compensation totaling $34 million will be put in a reasonable reserve and came back to the influenced Value Line common store financial specialists. No criminal accusations have been documented. Legitimate difficulties A claim (Free Enterprise Fund v. Open Company Accounting Oversight Board) was documented in 2006 testing the lawfulness (legitimateness) of the PCAOB. The protest contends that on the grounds that the PCAOB has administrative controls over the bookkeeping business, its officials ought to be selected by the President, instead of the SEC. Further, in light of the fact that the law does not have a â€Å"severability clause,† if some portion of the law is made a decision about unlawful, so is the rest of. On the off chance that the offended party wins, the U. S. Congress may need to devise an alternate technique for official arrangement. 02. [pic]Generally Accepted Accounting Principles Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) is a term used to allude to the standard structure of rules for money related bookkeeping utilized in some random ward which are commonly known as Accounting Standards. GAAP incorporates the norms, shows, and rules bookkeepers follow in recording and summing up exchanges, and in the readiness of budget summaries. Standards get from convention, for example, the idea of coordinating. In any report of budget reports (review, assemblage, survey, and so on ), the preparer/inspector must demonstrate to the peruser whether the data contained inside the announcements follows GAAP. †¢ Principle of consistency: Regularity can be characterized as adjustment to authorized guidelines and laws. †¢ Principle of consistency: This guideline expresses that when a business has once fixed a strategy for the bookkeeping treatment of a thing, it will enter every single comparative thing that follow in the very same manner. Rule of genuineness: According to this guideline, the bookkeeping unit ought to reflect in compliance with common decency the truth of the company’s budgetary status. †¢ Principle of the changelessness of strategies: This rule targets permitting the rationality and correlation of the money related data distributed by the organization. You read Sarbanesâ€Oxley Act in clas sification Paper models †¢ Principle of non-remuneration: One should show the full subtleties of the monetary data and not look to repay an obligation with an advantage, income with a cost, and so forth observe show of conservatism) †¢ Principle of judiciousness: This guideline targets indicating the truth â€Å"as is†: one ought do whatever it takes not to make things look prettier than they are. Normally, income ought to be recorded just when it is sure and an arrangement ought to be entered for a cost which is likely. †¢ Principle of coherence: When expressing budgetary data, one ought to accept that the business won't be interfered. This standard mitigates the guideline of reasonability: resources don't need to be accounted at their dispensable worth, however it is acknowledged that they are at their chronicled esteem (see deterioration and going concern). Standard of periodicity: Each bookkeeping passage ought to be allotted to a given period, and split ap propriately in the event that it covers a few periods. On the off chance that a customer pre-pays a membership (or rent, and so on ), the given income ought to be part to the whole time-length and not meant totally on the date of the exchange. †¢ Principle of Full Disclosure/Materiality: All data and qualities relating to the budgetary situation of a business must be uncovered in the records. Standard of Utmost Good Faith: All the data with respect to the firm ought to be revealed to the guarantor before the protection approach is taken. 03. The International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) Many nations use or are meeting on the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), built up and kept up by the International Accounting Standards Board. In certain nations, nearby bookkeeping standards are applied for ordinary organizations yet recorded or enormous organizations must adjusts to IFRS, so legal revealing is practically identical universally, across locales. Universal Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are standards based Standards, Interpretations and the Framework (1989) received by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). A considerable lot of the norms shaping piece of IFRS are known by the more established name of International Accounting Standards (IAS). IAS was given somewhere in the range of 1973 and 2001 by the Board of the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC). On 1 April 2001, the new IASB took over from the IASC the duty regarding setting International Accounting Standards. During its first gathering the new Board embraced existing IAS and SICs. The IASB has kept on creating principles calling the new norms IFRS International Financial Reporting Standards include: †¢ International Financial Reporti

Friday, July 24, 2020

Fort Smith

Fort Smith Fort Smith, city (1990 pop. 72,798), seat of Sebastian co., NW Ark., at the Okla. line where the Arkansas and Poteau rivers join; inc. 1842. It is the rail, trade, and industrial center of a farm and livestock area. Its manufactures include construction materials, food and beverages, textiles, furniture, and hardware. An 1817 military post here became a supply point during the 1848 gold rush; the lawless area was cleaned up (1870s) by Hanging Judge Isaac Parker , but Bordello Row and other reminders are celebrated today. The Fort Smith National Historic Site includes the Old Fort Museum and Judge Parker's court (see National Parks and Monuments , table). A national Civil War cemetery and an annual rodeo draw visitors. In 1969 the city was linked by the Arkansas River project with the Gulf of Mexico; the dam built east of Fort Smith created a large lake. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. See more Encyclopedia articles on: U.S. Political Geography

Friday, May 22, 2020

How America Became Obese - 873 Words

One thing that the world’s health experts and leaders can agree upon is that obesity is a major health problem in our modern era. Obesity is not only an aesthetic concern, there are also serious medical conditions associated with obesity such as diabetes type 2, heart disease, increased blood pressure, and increased cholesterol. In America alone, over 300,000 people die every year with obesity related health problems. (Sharma) That being said, worldwide there is little agreement about what is a safe BMI (Body Mass Index) to avoid the complications of obesity. Worldwide over the last twenty years there have been many research studies into the causes of obesity. While many correlational links have been found, it is safe to say that obesity is a complex multi-faceted problem. Researchers have found a relationship between fetal malnutrition and later in life obesity, as well as a relationship between the thrifty genotype and inability to lose weight. Both of these correlations to obesity are thing that an individual has no real control of so they will not be examined in this essay. Relationships have also been found between increased caloric intake, decreased physical activity, and sleep deprivation with obesity, which are all things we can control so they will be discussed in this essay. Increased caloric intake is a problem throughout America as well as the rest of the world. As new and cheaper methods to sweeten food have been developed, such as corn syrup make it easy andShow MoreRelatedObesity And Its Effects On Obesity1637 Words   |  7 PagesMany people wonder how destructive can effects of obesity be. First of all what is an obesity? Obesity is an abnormal accumulation of body fat, usually 20% or more over an individual s ideal body weight. It is a very serious problem and is becoming very dangerous in today’s world. Obesity is now considered to be the second most preventable death in America, with tobacco being the first. As use of tobacco rates continues to decline, the obesity rates continue to rise. With that being said, deathRead MoreFast Food is Killing Americans Essay629 Words   |  3 PagesAmerica is one of the largest countries in the world, and the population is one of the largest also; but not in numbers, unless those numbers are on a sca le and coincide with the amount of excess fat that is on the average American. In asking why Americans are so overweight, the fast food industry is not to blame entirely. Although Americans consume more fast food than any other nation and the mass of the population reflects this fact, no one is forcing anyone to eat fast food. Americans eat soRead MoreObesity : The Struggle That Americans Face Today1070 Words   |  5 Pages As a young child growing up, I had a struggle with being bigger. I was on the verge of becoming obese in the ninth grade. Weighing in at 260 lbs, with common health issue that I may be diagnosed with, I knew I must range my life for the better. Obesity, diabetes, and high blood pressure runs in my family, so it is not a surprise when a relative becomes bigger or has diabetes. The reason why I became so big was that I have hypothyroidism, meaning, my thyroid gland does not produce adequate amountsRead MoreChildhood Obesity663 Words   |  3 PagesObesity can happen to anyone for many reasons and it can be reversed many different ways. There are several causes for obesity in America, including fast- food restaurants and their marketing, hereditary obesity, and people reacting to the stereotypes in the media that you must be beautiful to be accepted. A. Supporting Evidence More and more Americans are becoming obese every single day. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“More than half of Americans are overweight, including 1 out of 5 children. Nearly one third are obeseà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ .Read MoreChildhood Obesity Is The 21st Century Epidemic Essay975 Words   |  4 Pagesobesity has been on the rise, and currently one and three children is obese. Only 2 percent of the children in the U.S have a healthy diet. Moreover, obesity rates are much higher in children than in adults, and it is the production and promotion of unhealthy foods as well as lack of physical activity that account for this disparity. It is one of the top health concerns facing children and parents in the U.S. Children that are obese face possible health concerns in the future. â€Å"The United States, BrazilRead MoreObesity : Obesity And Obesity859 Words   |  4 PagesEveryday, the amount of Americans that become obese increase astronomically. Because of the obesity rate in America, the country became th e top fattest nation in the entire world. Because of the high obesity rate in America, many organizations created statistical websites to inform the public of the amount of overweight people in the country. Many clinical websites were established by doctors to inform people about the risk factors of obesity and how to treat obesity. There are many reasons why AmericansRead MoreThe Big Problem With Obesity1514 Words   |  7 Pages101 25 January 2016 The Big Problem with Obesity According to statistics from the Center of Disease and Control (2013), over 35.7% of Americans are obese. The most obvious of causes for such a huge amount of fat derives from terrible eating habits and lack of physical activity. These issues occur due to the direction of American culture. With America undergoing an era of recession, many people have relied on welfare and lost their sense of hope, which in has led them to being inactive at home. TheRead MoreObesity : Obesity And Obesity1596 Words   |  7 Pages One of the raising diseases in America today is obesity. In the study of Aston, he found that In the United States two-thirds of adults and one-third of children are obese and overweight (Aston, 55). Everyone in America is setting each other up for disaster of several health problems including heart failure, and diabetes. Obesity has been an active and increasing health condition since the Stone Age era, even beyond the Stone Age era. Over the years it has shown that over the pastRead MoreObesity Problem In America1733 Words   |  7 Pages1970’s, people ate about 2,160 calories per day. Today, people eat around 2,673 calories per day. Americans are eating about 25 percent more calories than in the 1970’s. This happened because both plate sizes and portion sizes have expanded. Food became cheaper and faster to get. It could be difficult for people ages 18 to 25 to have a nice, healthy, home-cooked meal. So, instead of going on an empty stomach, most millennials choose to get unhealthy fast food. Consumers are just as much at faultRead MoreObesity Invasion Of The United States1247 Words   |  5 Pagesfor the World Health Organization, compiled data that showed 188 countries ranked by the percentage of their population that is overweight or obese. The U.S is ranked 27th place with 66.3 percent of it’s population being obese or over weight. Even now when a lot of Americans are focusing on â€Å"healthy habitsâ⠂¬  a majority of are population is still affected. How has it come to be that one of the richest nations in the world is practically consuming itself to death. According to the one of the nations

Thursday, May 7, 2020

New York City The Five Points - 1763 Words

New York City’s old slum neighbourhood, the Five Points, was notoriously known for its vice and crimes. The first organized crime group in New York City was the Forty Thieves which was led by Edward Coleman, started in 1825, in the back of a grocery store. The Dead Rabbits were an Irish gang in the Five Points area, and are most known for the riot they caused in 1857. The Eastman Gang were a Jewish group in the Five Points area, which began in the late nineteenth century, and were the rival of the Five Points Gang. The Five Points Gang was another group, started by Paul Kelly and included future famous mobsters. In Five Points, where most of New York City’s crime started, it also started some of history’s most notorious gangs, and mobsters. Five Points was a Lower Manhattan neighbourhood named after its five-cornered intersection of Anthony, Orange, and Cross Streets. Five Points is notoriously known as New York City’s most slum neighbourhood. Immigrants, such as the Irish, the Italians, and the Chinese, lived in this neighbourhood. In the present, Five Points does not exist, and is now known as Chinatown. A religious view on the neighbourhood was: â€Å"the most notorious precinct of moral leprosy in the city,†¦ a perfect hot-bed of physical and moral pestilence,†¦ a hell-mouth of infamy and wow.† While, Charlie Dicken’s describes the neighbourhood as: â€Å"†¦loathsome, dropping, and decayed† Others asserted that Five Points was the slum neighbourhood, and no other city could rivalShow MoreRelatedEssay on Gangs of New York1544 Words   |  7 Pages Picture Manhattan in 1860, a time before the city had been dolled up and gotten ready for the silver screen, before the glamour and allure took over. Amsterdam Vallan (DiCaprio) is a young Irish man that migrates to the USA at a young age. Amsterdam’s story takes place in Five Points District of New York, a filthy and dangerous part of the cit y before it was deleted form history. As a young boy Vallan witnessed his father’s murder at the hand of William Cutting or Bill the Butcher (Day-Lewis) duringRead More Gangs of New York History vs. Hollywood Essay1120 Words   |  5 Pages nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The movie begins in New York, in 1843, with a gang fight. Bill â€Å"the butcher† Cutting’s gang of â€Å"nativists† have challenged the â€Å"dead rabbits† (a gang of mostly Irish immigrants) to a fight to settle once and for all who is the most powerful gang in the area. After an intense battle the â€Å"nativists† win by killing the leader of the â€Å"dead rabbits†, also Amsterdam’s (the main character’s) father. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Amsterdam is then led into an orphanage whereRead MoreGangs of New York History vs. Hollywood1164 Words   |  5 Pagesbegins in New York, in 1843, with a gang fight. Bill the butcher Cuttings gang of nativists have challenged the dead rabbits (a gang of mostly Irish immigrants) to a fight to settle once and for all who is the most powerful gang in the area. After an intense battle the nativists win by killing the leader of the dead rabbits, also Amsterdams (the main characters) father. Amsterdam is then led into an orphanage where he grows to be a man, all while Bill Cutting runs the Five Points, and mostRead MoreCultural Diversity in New York Essay1646 Words   |  7 Pagesthe land of opportunity. New York is a major central for diversity and because of that many people from different cultural atmospheres have brought their families and dreams to New York City. Although Immigration patters throughout the last 200 years have varied, New York has consistently seen people from around the world move to the city and call it home. From the earliest points in our history as a nation, New York has been a center for trade and economic growth. New York is known world wide as aRead MoreA Pickpocket s Tale Of New York1113 Words   |  5 PagesA Pickpocket’s Tale  gives an extraordinarily different view into New York’s underworld of the nineteenth century. The underworld of New York in the nineteenth century has usually been a topic described by clichà ©d e xplicit narratives of merciless urban gangsters and scary underworld stereotypes. Through his biography, A Pickpocket’s Tale, of New York’s nineteenth century underworld criminal George Appo, Timothy Gilfoyle transforms this unoriginal genre into something quite interesting. Gilfoyle providesRead MoreIrish Immigrants and the New York Draft Riots of 18631453 Words   |  6 PagesThe New York Draft Riots of 1863 In the summer of 1863 New York experienced one of the most violent protests in the American history. The riots were mainly in reaction to the Union draft for the Civil War, which Abraham Lincoln enacted when volunteers began to run out. The riots lasted for five days, and the mob consisted of almost 50,000 angry men who opposed to the Civil War, draft and Emancipation Proclamation. This paper will discuss how the Irish immigrants in New York affected the draftRead MoreHurricane Essay1125 Words   |  5 Pages What Would a Massive Hurricane Mean To NYC In my community of New York City it is unlikely for a major hurricane to hit. Its only happened a handful of times in history. If a major superstorm hit our city it would be considered a Noreaster. Noreasters are intense storms that can cause heavy snow, rain and oversized waves that can cause beach erosion and a low level storm surge and structural damage. The intensity of the wind gusts associated with these storms can exceed hurricane force in intensityRead MoreDocumentary Central Park Five was Directed by Kevin Burns, Sarah Burns, and David McMahon1609 Words   |  6 PagesThe documentary directed by Kevin Burns, Sarah Burns, and David McMahon called Central Park Five was about the trials, prosecutions, and exonerations of five young men. On April 1989 a woman was found in Central Park of New York City after she had been brutally raped and beaten. She was taken to the hospital in critical condition, and later made a miraculous recovery having no memory of the event. Police arres ted Antron McCray, Kevin Richardson, Yusef Salaam, Raymond Santana, and Korey Wise—who wereRead MoreNew York City Public Transportation System1026 Words   |  4 PagesMetropolitan Transportation Authority was founded, advances in transportation in New York City have improved the city’s developing economy and have benefitted people to a great extent. Located in the heart of Manhattan, the MTA headquarters are home to hundreds of different vehicles, ridden by thousands daily. The train tracks and bus routes run through Manhattan, Queens, Brooklyn, Staten Island, and the Bronx, unifying all five boroughs and improving the lives of everyone Beginning at $0.05 and goingRead More How Many People are Homeless? Essay1591 Words   |  7 Pagesstable, permanent residence have few shelter options because shelters are filled to capacity or are unavailable. A recent study of 29 U.S. cities found that in 1996, 20% of all requests for emergency shelter went unmet due to lack of resources (Waxman and Hinderliter, 1996). In addition, a review of homelessness in 50 cities found that in virtually every city, the citys official estimated number of homeless people greatly exceeded the number of emergency shelter and transitional housing spaces (National

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Election Commission in India Free Essays

A good electoral system is, therefore, the bed rock of genuine representative government. The architects of the Indian constitution attached the highest significance to arzon-dependent electoral machinery for the conduct of elections. For this it was necessary that an independent election commission with its vast paraphernalia should be set-up in country such a commission could ensure fair and free elections of the representatives of the pie at all levels. We will write a custom essay sample on Election Commission in India or any similar topic only for you Order Now Articles 324, Dr. Ambedkar contended, â€Å"proposed centralise the election machinery in hands of a single commission, be assisted by regional commissioners working under the supervision direction control of the election commission and not and under e control of the state government as envisaged earlier. † Composition of the Election Commission: Of the four pillars of the Indian constitution, the Election commission is one, the other three being the Supreme Court, the public service commission and the comptroller and Auditor General of India. On the Election commission depends the integrity of election, which truly is the oxygen of democracy. Thus viewed, its independence d impartiality assume critical importance to the country’s entire political system. To ensure free and fair and impartial elections, the constitution establishes the Election Commission, a body autonomous in character and free from political orenecutive influence. The commission is an All India body having jurisdiction over, elections to parliament, fate Legislatures, offices of the president and vice-president. The Election Commission consists of the Chief Election Commissioner, and such number of Election Commissioners if any as the president may fix from time to time. The Chief Election Commissioner stands at the apex of the hierarchy of the Election Commission of India. All these commissioners are appointed by the president subject to the provisions of any law enacted by parliament for the purpose. The Chief Election Commissioner acts as the chairman of the Election Commission . n case any other Election Commissioner besides him is appointed. The tenure of the Chief Election Commissioner is independent of the executive discretion, for he cannot be removed from his of face except in the like manner and on the like grounds as a judge of the Supreme Court. The conditions of service of the Chief Election Commissioner cannot be varied to his disadvantage after his appointment. The president also promulgated an ordinance amending the Chief Election Commissioner and ther Election Commissioner A ct providing for unanimous transaction of business and decisions but in case of differences of opinion among the three members the matter shall be decided â€Å"according to the opinion of the majority. † The Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioner Act, 1991 as existed before the issue of ordinance was weighed in favour of the chief election commissioner on decision making in case of differences among the members of the commission. The constitution provides for a single member or multimember Election Commission. Where there is more than one I members the CEC acts as its chairman. The committee on Electoral Reforms has made certain recommendations with regard to the items and conditions of service Of the Chief Election Commissioner and the other Election Commissioners. After having studied those recommendations the chief Election Commissioners of India conditions of service rules 1972 were amended with introspective, effect from 1st January 1986. The Chief Election Commissioner of India will not be entitled to the salary and other facilities, like rent free accommodation, equivalery to that of a judge of Supreme Court. The term of his office has also been extended upto 6 years, from the date he assumes office or till the day he at his the age of 65 years. To assist the Chief Election Commissioner in the performance of his onerous duties there exists a large paraphernalia of the officers and the staff subordinate to him. Among them is the regional commissioner. Deputy Election Commissioner, secretary, Under secretary, Research officers etc. In the place of the regional commissioners a new post of Deputy Election Commissioner was created in the Election Commission for the first time in 1956. Since he Deputy Chief Election Commissioner is appointed by the president and is usually sent on deputation, he can be recalled by the central govt, at the request of the chief Election Commissioner at any time. At the state or the union territory level there is the Chief Election officer as the kingpin in the Electoral machinery. He is nominated by the Election Commission in consultation with the state Govt. He is usually a senior executive or judicial officer of the state Government. He is assisted by the joint deputy or assistant Chief Election officers as well as the rest of the staff appointed by him in consultation with the state government. He may be a whole time or part time officer. At the district level the electoral duties are discharged by the District officer or the Executive Officer in addition to his normal administrative routine. The responsibility for the preparation and revision of electoral rolls is rested in an officer called the Electoral Registration officer. He may have under him Assistant Electoral Registration officers. The election in every constituency is supervised by an officer known as the returning officer nominated by the Election commission in consultation with the govt, of the state. The same officer can be nominated as returning officer r more than one constituencies. He is assisted by one or more assistant Returning Officers so designated by the Election Commission. The staff consisting of presiding and polling officers, for the actual conduct of the poll is appointed by the District Election officer. The District Election Officer may appoint a presiding officer for each polling station and such polling officers are necessary. The presiding officer keeps order of the pooling station and ensures the fair conduct of the poll. Functions and powers of the Election Commission: The Election Commission of India has to perform multifarious duties assigned to it under the constitution. Some of the principal functions of the commission are: (1) Demarcation of constituencies: To facilitate the process of elections a country has to be divided into several constituencies. The task of delimiting constituencies is generally performed by a delimitation commission. But the power to delimit parliamentary and assembly constituencies for the first general elections in 1951 was conferred on the president. The Election Commission distributed the seats district wise in each one of the states and directed the Chief Electoral Officers to prepare proposals for the physical demarcation of constituencies according to the prescribed criteria. The procedure adopted in the delimitation of constituencies in 1951 led to a virtual power in the hands of the ruling party to decide the contours of the constituencies as it suited its designs. The association of parliamentary Advisory committees with the delimitation commission gave top priority to political consideration. The Election Commission strongly pleaded for taking away this power from the parliament. The Delimitation commission was to consist of three members, two of whom were to be nominated by the president from serving or retired judges of the Supreme Court or High Courts while the Chief Election Commissioner was to be an ex-officio member. (2) Electoral Rolls: The second important but tedious function of the Election Commission is to prepare for identification the upto date list of all the persons who are entitled for voting at the poll. (3) Recognition of political parties and Allotment of Symbols: A new part IV A has been added to the representation of the people Amendment Act, 1951 on registration of political parties. Section 29 A now inserted provides for registration with the commission, of associations and bodies of individual citizens of India as political parties for purpose of this Act. This provision came into force from June 15, 1989. A recognised political party has been classified either as a National Party or a state party under paragraph 7 of the Elections symbol order 1968. Another important function of the Election Commissioner is to allot symbols to the political parties and the candidates, and also to accord recognition to the political parties. The commission has specified certain symbols as reserved and others as free. The reserved symbols are only available for candidates sponsored by the political parties and the free symbols are equally available to other candidates. The Election Commission has power to adjudicate upon disputes with regard to recognition of political parties and rival claims to a particular symbol for the purposes of elections. (4) Scrutiny of the Nomination Papers: Another function of the Election Commission is to examine the nomination papers of the candidates. These papers are accepted if found in order, but rejected otherwise. This duty is performed by the returning officer who notifies to all the contesting candidates the date, time and place for the formal scrutiny of nomination papers. The Returning officer summarily but judicially examines all the nomination papers and decides the objection raised. He is also to see whether the requisite requirements of security deposit, election symbol, election agent etc. have also been fulfilled. He is empowered to reject the nomination papers either by upholding the objection raised by a rival candidate or on his own motion or any of the following (a) that the candidate either is not qualified or is disqualified to fill the seat under any of the relevant constitutional provisions viz. Articles 84. 02, 173 and 191 (b) that the provision of sections 33 and 34 of the representation of the people’s Act 1951 have not been complied with and (c) that the signature of the candidate or the proposer on the nomination or papers is not genuine. (5) The conduct of the poll: Another stupendous task that the Election Commission has to undertake is the conduct of the poll throughout the whole of India. In a parliamentary constituency, the returning officer is to make suitable arrangements for conducting the poll with the prior approval of the Election Commission. The commission can order a Ripoll for the whole constituency under compulsion of circumstances. Articles 324 confers on the Election Commission necessary powers to conduct the elections including the power to countermand the poll in a constituency and ordering a fresh poll there in because of hooliganism and break down of law and order at the line of polling or counting of votes. (6) Election Expenses: Another most controversial function that the election commission has perform is no scrutinize the accounts of election expenses submitted by contestants in elections. In India every contesting candidate is required to maintain and file the accounts of his election expenses. Within a prescribed period after publication of the result of his election within 10 days from the last date of filing the returns the Returning Officer submits to the Election Commission a list of all the candidates and their agents together with their returns as also his observation in respect of candidates who have failed to lodge returns in the specified time and a accordance with the procedure prescribed by law. The commission scrutinizes the accounts and dudes whether the returns are in proper form and whether they have been lodged in time. In case of default it notifies the candidates or their agents of there disqualification by publishing these in the official Gazette. Role of the Election Commission: Election is the contrivance through which a modern state creates amongst its citizens a sense of involvement and participation in public affairs. It is through popular elections that the authority of a govt, is clouted with legitimacy and peaceful and orderly transfer of authority to new leaders is ensured. For this it was necessary than an independent Election Commission with its vast paraphernalia should be set up in the country. Such a commission would ensure fair and free election of the representatives of the people at all levels. According to L. K. Advani, â€Å"The Election Commission occupies a pivotal place in the scheme of the Indian constitution. During recent years it has willingly or unwillingly abdicated its independent Supra governmental authority and accepted for itself the role of a mere official department charged with the conduct of elections. The relations between CES and the central and state Governments are not cordial. The confrontation and the ensuing embarrassment for the Governments as a result of the ruling given by Chief Election Commissioner J. N. Seshan have only been increasing. With a critical evaluation of the working of the Election Commission of India so far as we can now infer that: Firstly, the working of the Elections Commission of India during the last four decades has shown that the Election Commission worked independently and impartially, as well as efficiently. Secondly, the Election Commission has fulfilled all the constitutional obligations, and has never tried to go beyond or over step the limits of the constitution. It always worked within the frame work of the constitution. Thirdly, when the Election Commission conducted the first General Election in 1951-52 the electorate were just 17 million but the present strength of the electorate is about 50 crores. The commission, has however been able to cope with its ever mounting responsibilities. It has the capacity to meet new challenges and faced the situation boldly. Fourthly, although the faith of the people in democracy, its institutions and political parties has eroded but their faith in the Election Commission has all the more strengthened or fortified. According to the Election Commission, the very fact that in almost all states the ruling parties have suffer setbacks shows that the elections have been free and fair. It has given the lie to the wide spread belief that the party in power will use official machinery and influence the voters in its favour. How to cite Election Commission in India, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Women Leaders In The Media Industry English Literature Essay free essay sample

Media in China call Yang Lan the Oprah of China, and Yang Lan said that she would instead be Yang Lan of the universe. Regardless of their rubrics, Yang Lan and Oprah both have achieved great success in Television concern every bit good as in the media industry. As self-made adult females, their experiences have been animating people all over the universe. In this paper we will present their backgrounds including household, childhood, instruction and calling. Then, we will analyse their leading manners and other factors that have put them where they are. Finally we will portion the lessons we have learned from these two leaders and pull our decision. Background Information Yang Lan Family A ; Childhood A ; Education Yang Lan was born in Beijing, the capital of China. She grew up in a traditional Chinese clerisy household. Her female parent worked as an applied scientist and her male parent taught English literature. We will write a custom essay sample on Women Leaders In The Media Industry English Literature Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page She had a happy and healthy childhood expect on occasion being worried about exam Markss like most Chinese childs. When she was 12, her household bought their first Television. That was twelvemonth 1980, at that clip Television was a freshness in China, and really few households owned one. With lone several channels available and limited scheduling, there was non much pick. It may surprise you that Yang Lan, who subsequently became one of the most good known Television hostesses in China, watched small telecasting as a kid. Alternatively, she focused on her school assignment, and did truly great on her University Entrance Examination, really her mark was among the top 20 of Bejing City, which was a great award for any in-between school pupil. After graduation from in-between school, Yang Lan was accepted by Foreign Studies University, one of the state s most esteemed schools. She continued her academic excellence in university, and her mark was among the top 10 in her school, particularly her unwritten English, which was ranked as outstanding for four old ages directly. Besides her surveies, Yang Lan was besides an active participant in other school events. She was the frailty president of the school pupil commission, one time won a rubric of best actress in University English Drama Contest, and besides hosted many shows performed at school. Later she recalled in her first book that those experiences did assist her in developing her communicating accomplishments. Career Path Yang Lan started her calling as a Television hostess through an inadvertent event. It was the twelvemonth 1990, when Yang Lan was 21 old ages old, a senior pupil in University. Within a pool of over one 1000 campaigners, she was chosen to be the hostess of a new assortment show, Zheng Da. Subsequently she recalled that during the choice, some managers thought that she was non beautiful plenty for the camera. She felt hurt by the fact that she was judged by visual aspect, but alternatively of experiencing sorry for herself, she found excess strength to turn out her abilities. The consequence is good known today that she outshined all other campaigners with her passion and endowments. Zheng Da Variety Show succeeded instantly, it was one time China s highest-rated plan with 220 million regular viewing audiences. In the following four old ages, Yang Lan grew out her new face on Television, and became one of the most popular hostesses in China. By that clip, she was merely 26 old ages old, with a glorious life on phase, so it was rather a surprise for her audience and coworkers when she announced that she has decided to travel to the US to prosecute a maestro s grade. Her determination of analyzing aboard later was proven to be a wise move. During her survey at Columbia University, majoring in International Communication, Yang Lan shot the first season of Yang Lan Horizon. We wanted to present Chinese viewing audiences to American dad civilization Yang Lan stated. For the 2nd season, Yang Lan took it to the following degree. Her show covered a broad scope of acute societal jobs confronting America, including societal security and drug dependence, etc. The Horizon was a major success. After finishing her maestro grade in 1996, Yang Lan went back to China. At first, she worked with the Phoenix Chinese Channel to establish a show named Yang Lan Studio, which featured pointed interviews with public figures in concern and media. In 1999, she left Phoenix, and with her hubby Bruno Wu, whom she had met and married while populating in New York, founded Sun Television Cyber Networks ( normally known as Sun Television ) . Sun Television carried her dream of establishing a channel concentrating on circulating educational plans, to settle down as the Discovery Channel of China . However, the Chinese media environment seemed unprepared her invention, after several old ages fiscal battle, Yang Lan eventually sold 70 % of her portions of Sun Television in 2003. Although Sun Television was non considered a wise commercial move, it did nt halt Yang Lan from turning her celebrity into a concern imperium. Her corporation, Sun Media, has entered assorted sorts of concerns, such as print publications, online magazines, jewellery lines and etc. Besides the day-to-day swot of concern direction, she now hosts Yang Lan One on One and Her Village. Yang Lan has more than proved herself to be a gifted anchorwoman and a originative pioneer. Oprah Winfrey Family A ; Childhood A ; Education It is no secret that Oprah had a unsmooth childhood. When she was born, she did nt hold a male parent, and her female parent was a adolescent maidservant. She was sent to populate with her grandma for six old ages shortly after her birth. They were in poorness and Oprah had to have on frocks made of murphy pokes. At age six, she moved to populate with her female parent. Get downing when she was nine old ages old, she was molested by her cousin, her uncle, and a household friend. At age 13, after enduring old ages of maltreatment, Oprah ran off from place. When she was 14, she became pregnant with her boy who died shortly after birth. Rumor has it that during the unsmooth period of clip, Oprah had some intolerable memories. She one time was an minor cocotte. Light eventually came to Oprah s life, she was sent to populate with Vernon, who was considered her biological male parent. Vernon was really rigorous. Oprah subsequently recalled that if she did nt complete the day-to-day survey program, there was no nutrient for her. With the aid of her male parent s subject, Oprah managed to turn her life about, from a otiose adolescent to an honor pupil. Later she was accepted by Tennessee State University with full scholarship, majoring in communicating. Career Path At age 19, she was hired to make intelligence part-time by a local black wireless station. Later she recalled the clip when she was making intelligence, In all those old ages I felt discontent, experiencing like I m in the incorrect topographic point, in the incorrect occupation. Until I was given an assignment to be a co-host with Richard Sher, it was a local talk show, called People Are Talking . When I was on phase, I felt like I was place. It was the most natural I of all time felt at work. Without uncertainty, Oprah s talk show calling began. Her major discovery came when she moved to Chicago, to host a forenoon talk show called AM Chicago, which was foremost aired in January 1st 1984. Today we may believe that Oprah s success happened nightlong, but that dark took about 11 old ages. During that clip, she was the lone fleshy black female on Television. Everyone talked to her like You re non gon na do it. But she made it, yet it was merely the beginning. Afterwards, she signed a syndication trade with King World. The show was renamed the Oprah Winfrey Show, which rapidly reached a national audience, and became the No.1 day-time talk show in America. Since the really first national Oprah Winfrey Show, which was on air September 8th, 1986, she has been hosting the show for 25 old ages. In her shows, mundane life is the lead, and the subjects are non merely concerned and cared about by the populace, but besides invariably involved with keen-edged societal jobs. Besides the appeal of being a hostess, Oprah has besides proved herself as a gifted concern enterpriser. Soon after the success of the show, Oprah founded Harpo Inc, which was entitled to the full authorization to bring forth the Oprah Winfrey Show. Later, Harpo Entertainment Group was founded to bring forth films and Television plans. Besides, Oprah publishes two magazines, and has created the web site to supply resources and synergistic content associating to her shows, magazines, book nine, and public charity. Oprah has been ranked the richest African American of the twentieth century and was one time the universe s lone black billionaire. A Word Before Comparison As we carry on this topic, we feel that if we lay our eyes merely on accomplishments, it is non a just comparing. The Japanese have a stating that provinces, A adult male is whatever room he is in . After all, the US has been the dominant power in the media industry for several decennaries. In the sixtiess, Television was a common contraption for general American households, but in China, even in the 1980s, Television was a luxury for most households. Not to advert the related commercial operations. Another factor that we can non pretermit is the differences of authorities ordinances between China and the US. Unlike the US, the Chinese media market is much more forced. There are tonss of regulations and limitations on Television content, and they change on a regular basis. Rather than comparing their accomplishments, our analyses focuses more on the factors that get them where they are today as a individual, such as personalities, interactive elements, centered leading factors, and how they implement their leading powers. Analysiss On Leadership Personal Features Leaderships are besides people. Their leading accomplishments are either enhanced or diminished by their behaviours. How they behave is chiefly dependent to their personal features and values. So we believe that it will assist us farther understand our two leaders by first analysing their personal features. In this subdivision, we use two signifiers to present our consequences, one for their features in common, another for their features that different from each other. Features in common Yang Lan Oprah Winfrey Resilience and Courage Although Sun Television was non considered to be a concern success, it did nt halt Yang Lan from enlarging her corporation, Sun Media, which has entered assorted sorts of concerns. She was sexually abused by several male relations and became really rebellious when she was immature. However, she was able to transform her life and leave the past buttocks. Positive Attitude She maintains a positive image in the eyes of Chinese public. Her show is considered to be profound and educational. And she is invariably involved in public service. Even when she tackles negative issues, she s able to convey up positive messages. This is one of the grounds why so many people have opened up their Black Marias to the positively oriented Oprah. Invention She is non afraid of challenges. She left the glamor of phase to analyze aboard when she was one of the most popular hostesses in China. Furthermore, Sun Television was a advanced test in the Chinese media, although latter she had to sell Sun Television due to fiscal grounds. She s invariably conveying new subjects and thoughts into her show. When Oprah began to portion the painful narratives, it was something that has neer been done earlier. Her inventions enable her to take on many different subjects that were uncommon before Oprah covered them. Charity Involvement She is the laminitis of Sun Culture Foundation. She is besides the Goodwill Ambassador of the China Charity Federation and a legal guardian of the Soong Ching Ling Foundation. She is the 1 of the greatest black altruists in American history. Engagement in charity is a really of import portion of her life. Features that they are different from each other Yang Lan Oprah Winfrey Family Valuess She has a happy household with two childs, a boy and a girl. From the foreigners sentiment, her matrimony is the sort to be envied. She is a individual adult female. Her unsmooth childhood and turning up without a existent female parent likely consequence how she sees matrimony and maternity. Attitudes to Commercial She is a popular advertisement interpreter. Actually, several commercials with her image and indorsements are on air every twenty-four hours. She does urge merchandises, particularly books in her shows, but every bit far as we know, she neer endorses a merchandise for fiscal grounds. Manners She is good known by her intellectuality, elegance and soft mode. From 1996, she has interviewed more than four 100 public figures, including many caputs of province. She is able to inquire inquiries in deepness and present profound interviews. The secret of Oprah s success is sharing. She candidly portions about her past maltreatments and drug job. These personal issues are normally non discussed or even mentioned by other talk show hosts. Her friendly and empathic personality besides makes her invitees feel warm and trusty. How public sees them She seems to hold it all, calling, household, intelligence, beauty and celebrity. The public sees her as a theoretical account for calling adult females, who lives a about perfect life. Peoples, particularly adult females, see her non merely as a famous person, but truly love and trust her. That s the ground why a book can go a best seller overnight when Oprah says she it s deserving reading. Interactional Framework Based on the analyses of their features and other comparative elements, we come up with their interactive model charts severally, utilizing the leader-follower-situation model developed by Gallic and Raven. Yang Lan Leader Followings Situation Oprah Winfrey Leader Situation Followings Centered Leadership Factors Through in-depth comparing and analysis for them, we believe that being a good or even first-class leader must possess the basic elements of leading. This is besides consistent with the five basic elements of centered leading proposed by Mckinsy. Centered leading factors Beginning: Mckinsey Quarterly Meaning detecting your strengths and seting them to work in the service of an inspiring intent Meaning is the motive that moves us. It enables people to detect what involvements them and to force themselves to the bound. It makes the bosom round faster, provides energy, and inspires passion. Meaning is so of import for leaders ; it translates into greater occupation satisfaction and higher productiveness. The benefits besides include feelings of transcendence-in other words, lending to something bigger than you generates a deeper sense of significance, thereby making a virtuous rhythm. Oprah has first-class communicating accomplishments and nice memory, which help her thrust other people s emotions easy. Every clip speaking about her calling development, Oprah ever listens to the call of her bosom . She believes that since she became talk show host, she truly found the passion and feeling for work . Pull offing energy cognizing where your energy comes from, where it goes, and what you can make to pull off it Actively pull offing energy degrees is important to leaders. How to equilibrate their energy flows means establishing your precedences on the activities that energize you, both at work and at place, and actively pull offing your resources to avoid dunking into militias. Yang Lan has a really graphic analogy about equilibrating work and life. Both work forces and adult females should bear the two pails of H2O which are calling and household. Some people guess it would be easy if they merely pick one pail of H2O. However it is non consistent with the rules of mechanics. We d break utilize a transporting pole to pick the two pails other than transporting one heavy pail without a pole. There is a balanced relationship between these two pails. So we d outdo do a good balance between calling and household in our life. Positive bordering following a more constructive manner to see your universe, spread out your skylines, and derive the resiliency to travel in front even when bad things happen The frames in which people use to see the universe and procedure experiences can do a critical difference to professional results. Many surveies suggest that optimists see life more realistically than pessimists, a frame of head that can be important to doing the right concern determinations. Optimists, research shows, are non afraid to border the universe as it really is-they are confident that they can pull off its challenges and travel their squads rapidly to action. By contrast, pessimists are more likely to experience incapacitated and to acquire stuck in downward spirals that lead to energy-depleting contemplation. Oprah had an unhappy childhood. Thankss to her male parent salvaging her in clip, and learning her to confront life positively. This positive attitude changed her life. She became an optimist, and therefore achieved her calling success. Until now, Oprah has been maintaining a wont of entering moved things particularly. Every dark at bedtime, ciphering what good things happened today, and composing down at least 5 interesting things. Connecting identifying who can assist you turn, constructing stronger relationships, and increasing your sense of belonging Peoples with strong webs and good wise mans enjoy more publicities, higher wage, and greater calling satisfaction. They feel a sense of belonging, which makes their lives meaningful. As Mark Hunter and Herminia Ibarra have noted in the Harvard Business Review, what differentiates a leader from a director is the ability to calculate out where to travel and to enlist the people and groups necessary to acquire at that place. Yang Lan s success, to a certain extent, depends on her application of GUANXI . She shows how to construct a wide web: One attack is to supply and inquire for aid on a regular footing. Finding ways to hammer connexions through involvements outside of work is another. Over and over, we heard, Make it personal, in the sense that others will acquire along with you more easy if they see your human side. You can show this in all sorts of ways at work, without unsuitably intermixing your professional and personal lives. Prosecuting happening your voice, going autonomous and confident by accepting chances and the built-in hazards they bring, and join forcesing with others Prosecuting agencies to make our ain fortune. To prosecute with chances by taking ownership of them, you must first happen your ain voice, literally. Battle is every bit about hazard pickings. We need accept hazard as a portion of chance. To encompass chance, people must frequently take crisp roundabout waies and that the hazards of unexpected alterations normally seem more obvious than the benefits. Reaching out to others-not to avoid doing determinations yourself but to larn the best result from alteration can frequently assist you see chances in the right frame and make up ones mind whether or non to travel for them. Harmonizing to Forbes magazine, Oprah has gained more than 10 billion dollars up to the present. She is so successful in her calling mostly because of a large determination from herself-She set up her ain media group, Harpo and hired Jeff Chambers as CEO with 10 % of the portions. As we know, before Harpo, Jeff was non so good known as a attorney. He suggested Oprah to put up her ain company so that she can obtain existent control in her calling. Oprah got this chance, and made a great commercial success with Jeff s aid. Power Analysiss Overview In order to understand a individual s leading, it is of import to cognize the leading power the individual possesses and the influence the individual has on his/her followings. In this subdivision, we will foremost place the assorted powers Yang Lan and Oprah Winfrey had or have as leaders, and so measure how they have used their powers to act upon others in the different phases of their calling. We learned from Hughes, Ginnest and Curphy that leading power is a leader s capacity to bring forth effects on others, while influence is the existent grade of effects produced. Two constructs are somewhat different, as leading power is more about what leaders can make, and the influence is refering what leaders want to make or hold done. Another thing to observe is that leading power does non ever entirely come from the leader him/herself. In many instances, leading power depends on the state of affairs the leader is in. The follower s behaviour besides has an impact on the leader s power. In Yang Lan and Oprah s instance, since both of them are complete Television presenters/journalists, much of their leading powers are derived from the popularity of their Television shows. For that ground, we use the leader-follower-situation model developed by Gallic and Raven to analyze the leading power of Yang Lan and Oprah. In the model, Gallic and Raven identified the following 5 beginnings of leading power: Expert power Legitimate power Referent power Coercive power Reward power As seen in the diagram below, 3 elements that interconnect with each other can be found within the model, including leader, followings and state of affairs. Different beginnings of leader s powers are maps of different elements. Among the 5 beginnings of leading power, adept power is based on the leader s ain cognition and expertness hence it is a map of the leader, legitimate power is determined by leader s function hence it is a map of the state of affairs, referent power is built on the relationship between leader and followings hence it is the map of the two, coercive power is the possible to influence others through disposal of negative countenances hence it is a map of the leader and the state of affairs, and reward power is a map of all three elements in the model. Yang Lan Adept power: Today, Yang Lan is a family name in her place state. She is recognized by people in China as an elegant, intelligent and competent female. As a leader, Yang Lan s calling success mostly replied on her adept power, which is chiefly derived from her household and instruction background. Yang Lan s parents are the chief ground that she went on to analyze English during her undergraduate old ages. Her superior English linguistic communication accomplishments subsequently gained her admittance to the co-hosting function for The Zheng Da Variety Show of CCTV. Even today, it is non easy to happen another female media personality who has the fiting English linguistic communication accomplishments as Yang Lang does. Just when her name was going the equivalent word of the Zheng Da Variety Show, to everyone s surprise, she chose to vacate the show and to analyze international and public personal businesss broadening her positions and deriving cognition in international dealingss and the concern universe. She was able to use what she learned at Columbia to set up her image as an rational adult female in China. Legitimate power and coercive power: Yang Lan s beginnings as a Television personality for CCTV led her to seek a maestro s grade from Columbia University, so she returned to the media industry as a talk-show host at China s Phoenix Television after graduation. In 1999, she had the chance to follow her dream of establishing her ain company Sun Television Cyber Networks ( Sun Television ) . This can be seen as an effort to derive legitimate power and coercive power when her expert power ca nt acquire her anywhere higher. Referent power and reward power: As a cultural icon in her state, Yang Lan served as an image embassador for Beijing in its successful command for the 2008 Summer Olympics and spoke at China s concluding presentation to the International Olympic Committee in Moscow. She has besides interviewed more than 400 Chinese and international famous persons and concern leaders since 1996. But we would nt depict her as influential among her audiences. In China, really few adult females can accomplish what Yang Lan has achieved, i.e. celebrity, fiscal success, and a harmonious household. Peoples watch her show, but do non needfully purchase the merchandises she has endorsed. This is besides mostly affected by the values within Chinese society. In China, personal heroes are non encouraged except for political figures, personal issues are frequently unbroken secret, and mercenary wagess are non encouraged but instead frequently repulsed. In other words, what Oprah has done will non work in China. Findingss on leader influence: We find that Yang Lan chiefly relies on her adept power to influence others. This mostly due to: 1 ) Her superior cognition and competence degree in her field made her base out as a prima figure. 2 ) The political and societal environment in China prevented her from deriving more referent and wages power to influence others. Her transmutation from a Television personality to a concern leader can be seen as her move to prosecute bigger legitimate and coercive power, which in her instance is the lone manner for her self-improvement. Her beneficent Acts of the Apostless and image embassador function for Beijing Olympics are her efforts to increase her influence through wages and referent powers. So far, she is concentrating more on her concern successes than on societal achievements. Oprah Winfrey Adept power: As a media personality, Oprah had demonstrated her endowment at an early age when she worked at a local black wireless station. At age 19, she was hired as a newsman, and subsequently became the youngest and merely black ground tackle of the local Television talk show she worked for. In 1984, Oprah took control of WLS-TV s AM Chicago . In less than a twelvemonth, she turned it into the hottest plan in Chicago, which was shortly renamed The Oprah Winfrey Show. Cipher is traveling to oppugn Oprah s expertness in what she does. She knows how to interact with people on her shows and she has crisp eyes for descrying critical issues in ordinary people s lives. In a field that is dominated by white and male personalities, Oprah s 1000000s of viewing audiences for her show are the strongest back uping grounds of her superior knowledge/expertise in such a field. As a concern leader, Oprah s wealth and influence have grown invariably ; she was the first Afro-american adult female to make billionaire position, which speaks louder than most words that she is a concern leader who knows how to convey fiscal success to her organisation. Legitimate power and coercive power: As a Television presenter, Oprah s legitimate and coercive power comes from her being the ground tackle of her show. But when it comes to the relationship with her audiences, she has really limited legitimate and coercive power to utilize, because finally audiences have their pick for what show they watch. Oprah, as for most Television presenters, demands to trust on her other leader power to maintain her ain show running or even lasting. As a concern leader, Oprah is the laminitis and the face of her concern imperium hence she possesses abundant legitimate and coercive power within her organisation. Referent power: Referent power is the most of import leading power Oprah uses throughout her calling. In her early yearss, she was able to breakthrough as a successful Television show host because her audiences were inspired by her personality, her low roots, her recovery as an maltreatment subsister, and more significantly, her focus on issues in ordinary people s lives. She built strong interpersonal ties between herself and the audience, and made herself a trusting friend and an admirable function theoretical account for the audience to follow. For 25 old ages, this Emmy Award-winning daylight talk show The Oprah Winfrey Show has inspired, educated and enlightened 1000000s of people. She has remained true to the highest ideals of humanity and of nurturing the spirit. In the late 1990s, Oprah became a large participant in the literary industry with her Oprah s Book Club. Any book she chose became an nightlong best seller, which is another good illustration of Oprah using her referent power. Reward power: Reward power is another of import leading power Oprah has. As mentioned earlier, reward power involves all 3 elements of the model including leader, followings and state of affairs. A good illustration of how Oprah uses her reward power can be found in a typical episode of her show. For illustration, when she invites person who suffers from domestic maltreatment to be a invitee of her show, she uses her state of affairs ( being the host of a national-wide talk show ) to honor her invitees with attending on their job from 1000000s of audiences. At the same clip, she would portion with everyone her ain childhood experience of physical and mental maltreatment ; so as a leader, she was honoring her invitee with her ain experience, which would surely do her guest feel less suffering. The invitees would besides appreciate the chance to talk up about their jobs, while profiting from the bosom mending effects emotionally. Another good illustration would be, in the wildest dreams come true season of her show, Oprah gave out things that her audiences have asked for in their letters, runing from cars to mundane objects. This is another illustration of her utilizing her wages power as a leader. Findingss on leader influence: As a leader, Oprah influenced others chiefly through her referent and wages power, and that has ever been the instance throughout her calling. She foremost used referent and wages power to derive popularity for herself and her show among followings. When she became a good known figure, she continued to back up what she believed in by using her popularity and influence. Her concern venture was a natural move to merely capitalise on her celebrity, but should nt be seen as her move to derive more legitimate power in the leading. On the other manus, her philanthropic plants had ever been following the cardinal values she believed in. Lessons Learned The more we submerge ourselves to the analyses of these two phenomenal adult females leaders, the more we unfeignedly admire their accomplishments and characters. We believe the best manner to pay our regard is to larn from their experiences and utilize what we learn to better ourselves. We would wish to portion four valuable lessons. Growth is a pick No affair how talented we are, or we think we are, we can non all become Yang Lan or Oprah Winfrey. The painful fact is that success may depend on many factors that are out of our control. Should we merely admit that destiny is our foreman? The reply is NO. Because we do hold something under control, we can take to turn. It does nt take a illusion survey room or money to truly larn. We merely necessitate the strong desire to better ourselves. Growth can non vouch our success, nil can, but it can salvage us from the What if declinations. Peoples can state when you care, so do nt feign Since concern is war , should we all become pitiless soldiers ready to knife others in the back? We have no place to go through judgement ; after all, concern is concern. But, when we see the thaumaturgy that genuine attention has done, most people would appreciate it more. One of the most memorable minutes is from Yang Lan. Once in her show, Yang Lan s invitee was Malaysia s Prime Minister Badawi, whose married woman late passed off at that clip. Knowing that their relationship was really deep, Yang Lan asked the inquiry in a really sensitive manner. Prime Minister Badawi, who had neer responded to any personal inquiries in public, was touched by Yang Lan s mode, and with deep feelings recalled the last yearss with his married woman. The scene was touching. We all agree that common apprehension is an of import component of leading. We can merely accomplish that through echt attention and involvement to other people, ever seek to understand, non pass judgement. Be consistent Oprah one time recalled a existent narrative of hers: One twenty-four hours, a adult female in a food market shop stopped me and said, I do nt crush my childs any more, I used to crush my childs. At the first clip, at the 2nd clip, I ve been watching you for a long clip and you ve been consistent. Every clip, I watch you, you ever say the same thing. Beating your child alterations your child s life . I broke into cryings right off. Gandhi has a stating that states My life is the message I want to direct . Bing consistent does nt belie the fact that people s nature is complicated. We merely necessitate to happen things that we genuinely believe in, and those things we know for certain will represent our values, which can modulate our behaviour and demonstrate to the universe what sort of individual we are. What defines a concern leader? Fiscal success, power, or celebrity can convey you command over your ain life, but do nt do you a concern leader. Bing a concern leader is non merely about carry throughing our ain aspirations, but besides about doing a positive difference to the wellbeing of our community, our state and people. Yang Lan and Oprah have been utilizing their endowments and great luck to break our society, and that is why they are qualified as concern leaders. Decision In decision, while their successes and prominence illustrate that both Yang Lan and Oprah Winfrey are first-class leaders in both their place states and on the universe s phase, there are some noteworthy differences between the waies that they have chosen every bit good as in the ways they relate to their viewing audiences. Yang Lan is smart, glamourous, articulate, and progressive. Her image endorses consumer merchandises, and one is difficult pressed to go through a twenty-four hours in Beijing without seeing her exposure juxtaposed against something that is for sale. She represents a epicurean life style that many people dream about. Peoples who watch her see an graven image and a phantasy, and at the same clip a down to earth adult female to whom they can associate. On the other manus Oprah s narrative is that of a authoritative shreds to wealths . Her viewing audiences can associate to her past and take inspiration from her rise from poorness and life of fright to the famous person and leader that she is today. Oprah has neer lost the ability to link on a personal degree with her viewing audiences, to sympathize with them and set herself in their places. Her emotional openness goes a long manner in prosecuting her audience. She does non impart her image to publicize trade names, and is hence seen as a existent individual despite her position. She has considerable influence over her audience and is able to mobilise the multitudes to vote for a peculiar campaigner in American presidential elections or to do or interrupt a book on the New York Times Bestsellers List. Respected and recognized worldwide, Yang Lan and Oprah Winfrey are both leaders in their ain rights. With different manners and attacks they work in similar industries and exercise powerful influence ; their images and their messages are the voices of their states.